Águas residuais

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Recovery of ​Nutrients From ​Wastewaters ​Using ​Microalgae ​ Francisco ​Gabriel ​Acién ​Ferná​ndez, Cintia ​Gómez-​Serrano ​ and José ​María ​Ferná​ndez-Sevilla ​ Department of ​Chemical ​Engineeri
In this ​chapter the ​relevance of ​microalgae-​based processes ​for the ​recovery of ​nutrients ​contained in ​wastewaters is ​reviewed. The ​fundamentals of ​the process are ​discussed from ​the biological ​and engineering ​standpoints and ​it is shown ​that on this ​type of ​processes the ​nutrient ​recovery ​capacity is ​mainly a ​function of ​solar radiation ​availability. ​If adequately ​designed and ​operated up to ​450 tCO2, 25 tN,​ and 2.5 tP per ​hectare and per ​year can be ​fixed, ​producing up to ​200 t/year of ​valuable ​microalgae ​biomass. The ​utilization of ​microalgae-​based processes ​reduces to half ​the energy ​consumption of ​conventional ​wastewater ​treatment and ​al
Recovery of Nutrients From Wastewaters U[...]
PDF-Dokument [1.3 MB]
Anaerobic ​Treatment of ​Mine Wastewater ​for the Removal ​of Selenate and ​its Co-​Contaminants ​
Selenium (Se) ​pollution has ​led to several ​cases of severe ​aquatic ​ecosystem ​deterioration ​due to Se ​poisoning ​caused by ​bioaccumulation ​over time. ​However, the ​removal of ​selenate (SeO42-​) from ​wastewater ​streams with co-​contaminants ​has been ​largely ​considered as a ​black box in ​anaerobic ​biological ​systems using ​mixed consortia.​ This research ​aimed at ​addressing the ​effect of ​wastewater ​characteristics,​ i.e. co-​contaminants ​such as nitrate ​(NO3-) and ​sulfate (SO42-),​ heavy metals ​and pH, on the ​biological ​reduction of ​SeO42- and ​evaluating ​process ​integration for ​Se-laden ​wastewater ​treatment with ​co-contaminants.​ This study ​demonstrated
Anaerobic ​Treatment of ​Mine Wastewater[...]
PDF-Dokument [14.9 MB]
Upscaling the Zeolite-Anammox Process Treatment of Anaerobic Digester Filtrate
Upscaling the Zeolite-Anammox Process Tr[...]
PDF-Dokument [3.3 MB]
Investigation Of Wetland Performance For Sewage Treatment in Rural Areas
Sewage before ​treatment ​causes harm to ​the environment ​through ​pollution of ​water, soil, ​air sources and ​all things that ​matter for ​better living. ​Infection ​through crude ​sewage disposal ​in the ​environment can ​cause epidemic ​and spread of ​dangerous ​diseases. ​

Further, it ​also infects ​water and soil ​sources through ​organic and ​mineral ​substances and ​heavy metals, ​which can cause ​irrecoverable ​damage through ​diseases like ​cancer in ​humans and ​animals in the ​long run. ​Sewage ​treatment ​leadingto ​recyclable ​water for ​agricultural ​use affairs and ​green space. ​This is of ​extraordinary ​importance in ​arid reasons ​because of ​finite amount ​of recoverab
PDF-Dokument [774.6 KB]
The Choice of Methods of Quarry Wastewater Purifying
The negative effect made by mining enterprises on the natural
environment has complex origination. The intensive pollution is observed
because of the influence of mineral deposits open-pit mining on the
atmosphere, water resources and landscape complexes. Complex processes
of environmental anthropogenic changes caused by open pits’ operations
have brought to light the problem of surface water pollution near large
mining segments. Industrial wastewater of mining enterprises has a
significant impact on the natural environment. In connection with the
continuous and significant increase in the volume of mining, the amount of
wastewater from mines, quarries and processing plants i
PDF-Dokument [618.5 KB]
A Comparative Analysis of Selected Wastewater Pretreatment Processes in Food Industry
A Comparative Analysis of Selected Waste[...]
PDF-Dokument [362.9 KB]
FINNISH INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER GUIDE Conveying non - domestic wastewater to sewer s
This is the intern
ational version of
the Finnish
Industrial Wastewater G
The guide was translated into English in the context of
the BEST

Efficiency for Industrial Sewage Treatment project
The purpose of this guide
is to illustrate Finnish practices for managing industrial wast
ewater and present
the collaboration model, currently applied in Finland, between municipalities,
industrial e
nterprises and water utilities.
The translation of this guide was commissioned by the Helsinki Region
Environmental Services Authority HSY. The p
urpose of
the translation
is to
describe Finnish practices for managing industrial wastewater. The industrial
wastewater guide provides support and up
date information on
PDF-Dokument [2.5 MB]
Research on PFS Coagulating Treating the Ceramic Wastewater
PFS coagulation ​sedimentation ​method of high ​concentration ​ceramic ​wastewater .As ​turbidity, ​absorbance ​removal, ​conductivity ​haracterization ​to determine ​the PFS ​reagents. ​Comparison of ​different ​reaction ​conditions, the ​turbidity ​removal, color ​removal, ​conductivity, ​optimal ​operating ​conditions to ​determine the ​dosage of PFS. ​Experiment, the ​ceramic waste ​water 300 mL, ​stirring time ​for 5 mins, ​settling time ​is 30 mins, ​first set the ​PFS amount of ​500-2000 mg I L,​ then the more ​the amount of ​PFS, the worse ​the treatment ​effect; then ​set the amount ​of PFS 40-280 ​mg I L, the ​amount of PFS ​in the 100-130 ​mg I L, ​treatment is ​better; the ​last
Research on PFS Coagulating Treating the[...]
PDF-Dokument [882.3 KB]
Sustainability Indicators for the Waste Management from the Paper Industry within the CE Model
Proposal of Sustainability Indicators fo[...]
PDF-Dokument [1.8 MB]
Governing ​Transactions ​and Interdependences ​between Linked ​Value Chains in ​a Circular ​Economy: The ​Case of ​Wastewater ​Reuse in ​Braunschweig (​Germany) ​
Reusing wastewater in agriculture has attracted increasing attention as a strategy to support the transition towards the circular economy in the water and agriculture sector. As a consequence, there is great interest in solutions for governing the transactions and interdependences between the associated value chains. This paper explores the institutions and governance structures for coordinating transactions and interdependences between actors in linked value chains of wastewater treatment and crop production. It aims to analyze how transactions and interdependences shape the governance structures for reusing wastewater at the local level. A transaction costs analysis based on data from semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire is applied to the agricultural wastewater reuse scheme of
PDF-Dokument [10.9 MB]
The Effect of pH and Aluminium to Bacteria Isolated from Aluminium Recycling Industry
The Effect of pH and.pdf
PDF-Dokument [994.7 KB]
Removal of Directs Dyes from Wastewater by Cotton Fiber Waste
Environment protection is a precondition for sustained growth and a better quality of life for all peoples on earth. Aqueous industrial effluents are the main sources of pollution. Among the compounds of these effluents, dyes are particularly resistant to discoloration by conventional methods, and discharges present many problems that must be supported.

Synthetic dyes are used in industrials sectors; especially in the textile, industry. There is a certain selectivity of raw cotton fibers for the different types of dyes, depending on the chemical structure of the dyes. We note that this affinity is very high for direct dyes and decreases for reactive dyes and pigment dyes.

This study focuses on the elimination of direct dyes wastewater from the textile industry, by their adsorption on was
PDF-Dokument [1.3 MB]
Quality and management of wastewater in sugar industry
Wastewater from sugar industries is one that has complex characteristics and is considered a challenge for environmental engineers in terms of treatment as well as utilization. Before treatment and recycling, determination of physicochemical parameter is an important mechanism. Many different types of techniques are introduced and modified for the purpose, but depend upon the water quality parameters. The main aim of this study is to determine the physicochemical characteristics of sugar industry waste water by the standard method and minimize the fresh water consumption in sugar industry by water pinch methodology.

(PDF) Quality and management of wastewater in.... Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/272401609_Quality_and_management_of_wastewater_in_sugar_industry [a
PDF-Dokument [587.0 KB]
Trickling Filter for High Efficiency Treatment of Dairy Sewage
The article presents the results of research on the possibility of using a trickling filter for high efficiency treatment of dairy sewage. Nowadays, up to the authors’ knowledge, it is possible to change activated sludge system to trickling filter technology, especially in small dairy plants with lower raw sewage parameters in comparison to bigger plants. In the research, dairy wastewater after dissolved air flotation (DAF) process was treated with a laboratory scale research model Gunt CE701e which allows to control the basic parameters of the treatment with a trickling filter (TF). The conducted study included determining changing sewage parameters during the DAF process, as well as trickling filter (TF) efficiency. Such parameters as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Dem
Trickling Filter for High.pdf
PDF-Dokument [1.4 MB]
Palabras clave:contaminación, aguas residuales, contaminantes emergentes,
fármacos, drogas de abuso.
La escasez y calidad del agua se ha convertido en un problema de actualidad, hoy
día la reutilización de aguas residuales urbanas es una alternativa habitual en la mayoría de países desarrollados. No obstante, en la última década se identificaron
diversos contaminantes que están ocasionando efectos nocivos sobre los
ecosistemas y la salud (disrupción endocrina, biota resistente, etabolitos
reactivos, etc.
PDF-Dokument [2.7 MB]
Analysis and Assesment of the Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation in the City of Kłodzko
In this study, the current operation efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Kłodzko in the Lower Silesia Voivodeship (Poland) was analyzed and the predicted amount of the wastewater flowing to the WWTP in a 20-year period (until the year 2036) was estimated. The data on the quality and the quantity of raw (entering to the WWTP) and treated sewage from the years 2012-2016 were analyzed. The five essential pollutants indicators: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen and total phosphorus, regulated in the water permit were used to evaluate the efficiency of contaminants removal. On the basis of the percentage reduction of the individual pollutants indicators and their acceptable concentration
Analysis and Assesment of.pdf
PDF-Dokument [1.4 MB]
Tratamiento de contaminantes emergentes en sistemas de tratamiento de aguas residuales y lodos
Diferentes compuestos orgánicos procedentes de productos farmacéuticos, productos de cuidado personal, plastificantes, surfactantes, retardantes de llama, pesticidas,... son emitidos diariamente al medio ambiente, siendo la descarga de aguas residuales procedentes de las plantas de tratamiento una de las principales fuentes de emisión ya que no han sido diseñadas para la eliminación de este tipo de compuestos.

Existen algunas evidencias del posible efecto nocivo de estos contaminantes, normalmente denominados contaminantes emergentes (CEs), sobre la salud humana y el medio ambiente.

El comportamiento de estos compuestos en los diferentes sistemas de tratamiento se ve fuertemente influido por características como biodegradabilidad o capacidad de sorción, por lo que resulta necesa
PDF-Dokument [278.6 KB]
Estudios de cinética y de equilibrio para la eliminación de compuestos fenólicos mediante una nueva resina no iónica
Existen compuestos fenólicos en las aguas residuales de almazara, refinerías de petróleo, industrias de plásticos, cuero, pintura, farmacéutica y de acero. La eliminación eficiente de los fenoles de las aguas residuales ha adquirido últimamente un gran interés desde el punto de vista medioambiental debido a elevada toxicidad de estos compuestos, incluso a bajas concentraciones.

En este trabajo de investigación, se ha estudiado la eliminación de fenoles usando Amberlite XAD 4, un polímero reticulado no iónico. Se investigó la influencia de la concentración de los compuestos fenólicos en la corriente de alimentación, así como el efecto del tiempo de recirculación.

Los datos experimentales de equilibrio fueron ajustados a las ecuaciones de las isotermas de Langmuir, Freu
PDF-Dokument [136.2 KB]
Estudio de la dinámica poblacional de protistas, metazoos y bacterias filamentosas y su interpretación ecológica en fangos activos
El proceso de fangos activos es el sistema de tratamiento biológico más común en la depuración de las aguas residuales urbanas e industriales, siendo este un proceso biotecnológico donde interaccionan multitud de variables biológicas, fisicoquímicas y operacionales para la eliminación de contaminantes.

En la actualidad, los principales retos en el sector del tratamiento de las aguas residuales implican la necesidad de avanzar en el control y optimización de los procesos, que permitan encontrar nuevas estrategias y/o nuevos sistemas de tratamiento para el ahorro de los costes de explotación y el cumplimiento de los objetivos de eficiencia energética y calidad en las estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales (EDAR).

Además, las restricciones impuestas por la normativa en el
PDF-Dokument [1.7 MB]
Estudio de la evolución de la calidad microbiológica de los suelos abonados con fangos de EDAR
En la actualidad, la aplicación de fangos en agricultura se regula a través del Real Decreto 1310/1990, de 29 de octubre, sobre utilización de lodos de depuración en el sector agrario, en el que se establecen límites o criterios de calidad para algunos metales, pero no de gérmenes patógenos.

Son escasos los estudios realizados a escala real sobre el comportamiento y evolución de microorganismos en suelos agrícolas abonados con fangos de depuradora.

En este trabajo de investigación se estudia la evolución temporal de la contaminación microbiológica de terrenos agrícolas de distinta naturaleza (arcilloso y arenoso) en los que se cultivan girasol y maíz, abonados con fangos de depuradora urbana, con el fin de establecer los riesgos que para la salud humana y el medio ambien
PDF-Dokument [1.7 MB]
Mejora de la digestión anaerobia de microalgas mediante codigestión y pretratamientos
Los sistemas de tratamiento de aguas residuales con microalgas combinan el tratamiento de aguas residuales y la producción de bioenergía. Algunos estudios han demostrado la viabilidad de producir biogás a partir de microalgas cultivadas en estaciones depuradoras de aguas residuales (EDAR). Sin embargo, existen algunas limitaciones, como las características de la pared celular de las microalgas que limita su biodegradabilidad, su alto contenido en nitrógeno y que su producción sigue un patrón estacional.

Para superar estas limitaciones, el proceso de digestión anaerobia se podría mejorar mediante la aplicación de pretratamientos para incrementar la biodegradabilidad de las microalgas y/o la codigestión con otros sustratos ricos en carbono, para equilibrar el ratio C/N y lograr
PDF-Dokument [773.2 KB]
Beverage Plant – ETP Bioremediation Environmental Biotechnological Applications for Effluent Treatments
Green Solutions is one of the leading multifaceted business conglomerates in India and is engaged in a wide range of activities that touches environment, agriculture and industrial field.Green Solutions offers various biocultures and enzymes products for various environmental applications under brand name of Technozyme TM. Existing beverage company offering a range of healthy, safe, high quality, refreshing beverage options to consumers .This was suffering from some problems related to waste water treatment. Green solutions had set treatment program for bioremediation of effluent generated in this plant . This plant has ETP for waste water treatment having capacity 600KLD
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Investigating the Efficiency of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) in Wastewater Treatment of Dairy Industry
Lightweight expanded clay aggregate due to its physical and chemical properties; it can increase the process of adsorption and ion exchange. In this study, the efficiency 2 types of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate in reducing the amount of COD, BOD, TSS, nitrate and phosphate in dairy industry wastewater were investigated and the impact of different factors such as adsorbent dosage, mixing speed and mixing time were studied. The results showed that the efficiency of COD reduction of wastewater after touch with the granular type after 20 h is 65.9%. TSS and BOD have also been greatly reduced. Also the use of powder type, the highest removal efficiency was 31.81%, mixing speed 100 rpm, mixing time 20h, and adsorbent dosage 10 gr/l in addition; increasing the rate of mixing speed increase
AP_Volume 1_Issue 1_Pages 9-17.pdf
PDF-Dokument [586.3 KB]
Comparison of nitrifying microbial communities of two full-scale membrane bioreactors treating wastewaters from municipal solid waste using 16S rDNA gene amplicon squencing
Laura Moreno-Mesonero
Andrés Zornoza
Julián Fernández-Navarro
José Luis Alonso
Cristina García
Cristina Álvarez
Instituto de Ingeniería del Agua y Medio Ambiente, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain.
URBASER, Camino de las Hormigueras 171, 28031 Madrid, Spain
In the last years, biological treatment plants for the previously separated organic fraction from municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) have gained importance. In these processes aliquid effluent (liquid fraction from the digestate and leachate from composting piles), which has to be treated previously to its discharge, is produced. Landfill leachate is acomplex composition containing high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Membrane bioreactor systems (MBRs) are used f
PDF-Dokument [977.3 KB]
Recopilación, análisis y evaluación de experiencias en uso eficiente de agua en municipios
El objetivo de este catálogo es ofrecer a los municipios ejemplos concretos de buenas prácticas en la gestión y uso de los recursos hídricos. Se trata de ofrecer una herramienta práctica que permita a los gestores municipales conocer experiencias exitosas desarrolladas en otros municipios que han hecho un uso más racional del agua.

En el presente documento se ofrece una descripción de las distintas prácticas que incluyen el objetivo de dichas actuaciones, la situación de partida, los resultados obtenidos, así como los problemas encontrados en su implementación. En el mundo globalizado de hoy en día, los problemas en la gestión del agua son comunes a los distintos municipios.
PDF-Dokument [2.1 MB]
Los estudios de ACV inicialmente fueron desarrollados para analizar productos o materiales. Sin embargo, con el tiempo estos estudios han evolucionado hasta evaluar los impactos ambientales de procesos productivos, como por ejemplo, el tratamiento de aguas residuales.

Son muchos y muy variados los estudios que se han llevado a cabo. La primera referencia encontrada sobre estudios de ACV aplicados al tratamiento de aguas residuales, data 1997 cuando Roeleved et al. (1997) utilizaron esta metodología para evaluar la sostenibilidad del tratamiento de aguas residuales en Holanda.
PDF-Dokument [1.1 MB]
Eliminación de ibuprofeno de las aguas residuales mediante procesos de oxidación húmeda
El objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar la degradación de ibuprofeno mediante procesos de oxidación húmeda no catalítica (WAO) y oxidación húmeda catalítica (CWAO).

El catalizador seleccionado ha sido rutenio soportado en un carbón activado sintetizado a partir de un residuo lignocelulósico, hueso de melocotón (Ru(1)/AC-PS), con un contenido en metal del 1% e introducido mediante impregnación a humedad incipiente.

Se han estudiado diferentes condiciones de operación, modificando la presión (20-60 bar), temperatura (120-220oC) y masa de catalizador (0,05- 0,4 g catalizador/100 mL disolución). El proceso de oxidación húmeda catalítica fue efectivo en la eliminación de ibuprofeno en disolución empleando rutenio como fase activa, obteniéndose una eliminación próx
PDF-Dokument [228.8 KB]
Study of enzymatic activities and bacterial communities in two full-scale MBR plants.pdf
PDF-Dokument [5.2 MB]
Adsorción de cobalto en aguas residuales mediante materiales carbonosos
En este trabajo se ha estudiado la eliminación de iones cobalto presentes en aguas residuales mediante el empleo de carbón activado comercial, F-400, como adsorbente.

Se ha estudiado en discontinuo el efecto del pH, la temperatura, la dosis y el tamaño de partícula del adsorbente sobre la capacidad de adsorción. El proceso muestra una máxima eliminación de cobalto del 75% en condiciones óptimas. Los datos experimentales se han analizado mediante tres diferentes modelos de isotermas, Freundlich, Langmuir y Toth. La cinética de adsorción se ha realizado con respecto a los modelos de pseudo-primer orden, pseudo-segundo orden, Elovich y Bangham.

Se han determinado las constantes de velocidad de adsorción de los modelos cinéticos, mostrando que la difusión interna es el paso l
PDF-Dokument [213.2 KB]
Enviromental Ordination of Filamentous Bacteria in Activated Sludge
New strategies and/or biological treatment systems are in continuous development, in order to decrease the operationalcosts and to compliance the energy efficiency and quality objectives of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). One of thefrequently occurring operational problems in WWTPs is foaming and bulking (fig. 1a, b), which is mainly associated withexcessive growth of filamentous bacteria (fig. 1c). Studies about the dynamics of filamentous bacteria population inactivated sludge, often related to bulking and foaming episodes, have mainly focused on the elucidation of the taxonomicposition, in situ ecophysiology, presence and distribution, as well as strategies for controlling the populations. However, thepublished works about the biological process from the point of view of the enviro
PDF-Dokument [295.1 KB]
Plausible Bioindicators of Biological Nitrogen Removal Process in WWTPs. Application of Multivariate Predictive Models
Backgrounds: Nowadays, the main challenges in the wastewater treatment sector entail the need to advance in the control and optimization of the processes. In adittion, the restrictions imposed in the discharge of certain pollutants, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, force modifications in the configuration of the treatment plants. Therefore, it is increasingly necessary to deepen knowledge of the dynamic of the microbial populations of the biological community in activated sludge, mainly protists and metazoans. Many studies have attempted to relate protists and metazoans to physicochemical...
PDF-Dokument [1.1 MB]
Pilot simulation experiment to improve nitrogen removoal efficiency at a WWTP
PDF-Dokument [1.1 MB]
Microscopía convencional vs. FISH:identificación de bacterias filamentosas tipo 021N de Eikelboomy grupo Thiothrix nivea en fangos activos
PDF-Dokument [895.6 KB]
Microscopía convencional vs. FISH en la identificación y cuantificación de Candidatus ‘Microthrix parvicella’ y ‘Microthrix calida’ en fangos activos.
PDF-Dokument [307.8 KB]
Limitaciones en la identificación convencional del morfotipo Nostocoida limicola II en fangos activos
PDF-Dokument [836.4 KB]
Póster protistas y metazoos presentes en fangos activos
PDF-Dokument [825.2 KB]
PDF-Dokument [175.1 KB]
Control microbiologico operacional en el tratamiento de aguas de la industria fenol acetona y sintesis de aminas
PDF-Dokument [2.7 MB]
Efecto de las variables operacionales del proceso de fangos activos en la actividad exoenzimática del grupo mycolata
PDF-Dokument [14.9 MB]
Identification and abundance of Thiothrix in WWTPs treating domestic wastewater using FISH
PDF-Dokument [600.4 KB]
A New Species of the Genus Metacystis from a WWTP
PDF-Dokument [3.3 MB]
Relación entre el phylum proteobacteria y variables ambientales en EDAR
PDF-Dokument [216.4 KB]
La ecofisiología de los morfotipos 0803, 0914 y 0092 enmascarada por las técnicas convencionales
PDF-Dokument [2.7 MB]
Empleo de la viabilidad celular como herramienta para el control de la cloración en episodios de bulking filamentoso
PDF-Dokument [573.2 KB]
Correlaciones entre parámetros operacionales y fisicoquímicos relacionados con el proceso de nitrificación
PDF-Dokument [1.0 MB]
Identificación de bacterias filamentosas en EDAR industriales
PDF-Dokument [580.6 KB]
Identification and abundance of filamentous bacteria in a membrane bioreactor
PDF-Dokument [580.6 KB]
Correlating exoenzyme activities, operacional parameters, cellular viability and EPS in a MBR
PDF-Dokument [478.3 KB]
Control del proceso de depuración en un episodio de bulking filamentoso mediante el seguimiento de protozoos ciliados
Control_del_proceso_de_depuracion_en_un [...]
PDF-Dokument [1.1 MB]
Póster bacterias filamentosas presentes en fangos activos
Poster_bacterias_filamentosas_presentes [...]
PDF-Dokument [903.4 KB]
Atlas de protistas y micrometazoos presentes en fangos activos
PDF-Dokument [29.7 MB]
Tratamiento y conservación de muestras para análisis microbiológicos de fangos activos
PDF-Dokument [3.9 MB]
Assessment of plausible bioindicators for plant performance in advanced wastewater treatment systems
PDF-Dokument [120.1 KB]
Identificación de bacterias filamentosas en EDAR industriales
PDF-Dokument [354.0 KB]
Comunidades de protistas asociados a plantas con eliminación de nitrógeno
PDF-Dokument [134.7 KB]
Una curiosidad para la ciencia: reproducción vivípara de un rotífero en el fango activado
PDF-Dokument [1.8 MB]
Metodología para la búsqueda de microorganismos bioindicadores en fangos activos: la desesperación en la búsqueda del modelo.
Metodología para la búsqueda de microorganismos bioindicadores en fangos activos: la desesperación en la búsqueda del modelo.
PDF-Dokument [1.5 MB]
Efficiency of nitrogen removal and protist communities: the potential for introduction of novel biological index
Efficiency of nitrogen removal and protist communities: the potential for introduction of novel biological index
PDF-Dokument [173.9 KB]
A New Species of the Genus Metacystis (Ciliophora, Prostomatida, Metacystidae)from a Wastewater Treatment Plant
PDF-Dokument [1.5 MB]

Águas residuais

Direito A Wikipédia possui o:
Portal de Ambiente
Foto de uma conduta de esgotos subterrânea em Paris.

Esgoto é o termo usado para as águas que, após a utilização humana, apresentam as suas características naturais alteradas. Conforme o uso predominante: comercial, industrial ou doméstico essas águas apresentarão características diferentes e são genericamente designadas de esgoto, ou águas servidas.

A devolução das águas residuais ao meio ambiente deverá prever, se necessário, o seu tratamento, seguido do lançamento adequado no corpo receptor que pode ser um rio , um lago ou no mar através de um emissário submarino.

As águas residuais podem ser transportadas por tubulações diretamente aos rios, lagos , lagunas ou mares ou levado às estações de tratamento, e depois de tratado, devolvido aos cursos d'água.

O esgoto pluvial ou , simplesmente , água pluvial pode ser drenado em um sistema próprio de coleta separado ou misturar-se ao sistema de esgotos sanitários.

O esgoto não tratado pode prejudicar o meio ambiente e a saúde das pessoas. Os agentes patogênicos podem causar doenças como a cólera, a difteria, o tifo, a hepatite e muitas outras.

A solução é um sistema adequado de saneamento básico que pode ou não incluir uma Estação de Tratamento de Águas Residuais, conforme o caso a ser estudado.


O Esgoto no Brasil

O lançamento indiscriminado de águas residuais domésticas no Brasil costuma ser um dos maiores problemas ambientais e de saúde pública.

No Brasil, são produzidos 32 milhões de metros cúbicos de águas residuais por dia. Deste total, apenas 14 milhões são coletados e somente 4,8 milhões de metros cúbicos de esgoto são tratados, volume que corresponde a apenas 15% do total produzido; o serviço é estendido a apenas 44% das famílias brasileiras. O restante é descartado de forma indiscriminada nos rios. Ainda assim, o investimento do Governo Federal é de apenas 0.04% do PIB.[1].

Os governos de São Paulo e Minas Gerais apresentam os maiores investimentos nessa área de saneamento: "São Paulo também tem o segundo maior número absoluto de empreendimentos nas áreas de saneamento e habitação, 955 ao todo; 35 destes finalizados até agosto. Outros 321 projetos estão em andamento, enquanto 63% das obras ainda estão em fases burocráticas, que antecedem a efetiva execução das ações. Minas Gerais novamente aparece em primeiro lugar, com 996 empreendimentos nas duas áreas" [2] [3].

A coleta de águas residuais, no século XVIII e XIX principalmente nas casas mais ricas, dependia do trabalho de escravos, os chamados "tigres". Todas as noites eles carregavam vasos cheios de detritos e iam despejá-los no mar, onde também lavavam os latões, os urinóis e as escarradeiras. Esse tipo de coleta de águas residuais acontecia antes da família real chegar ao Brasil em 1808. Depois da chegada da família real o Brasil passou por muitas transformações significativas.


Composição do esgoto

Um grupo de cinco capivaras adultas acompanhados de três filhotes retornam ao muito poluído córrego que atravessa a Universidade de São Paulo de onde haviam emergido para se alimentarem de grama. O córrego recebe águas residuais não tratadas.

As águas residuais contêm basicamente matéria orgânica e mineral, em solução e em suspensão, assim como alta quantidade de bactérias e outros organismos patogênicos e não patogênicos.

Outros produtos podem ser indevidamente jogados descarga abaixo e lançados na rede de águas residuais, como estopas, chupetas e outros materiais relacionados a crianças, objetos de higiene feminina, tais como absorventes, ou ainda produtos tóxicos de origem industrial, preservativos usados, etc.

As águas residuais em decomposição anaeróbica produz gases que, em espaços fechados, como tubulações ou estações, podem estar concentrados a níveis perigosos, exigindo o uso de material especial e equipes de resgate. O gás sulfídrico é o principal responsável pelo cheiro característico do esgoto em decomposição anaeróbica. O método de cloração de águas residuais, já tratado previamente numa Estação de Tratamento (ETE), pode contribuir na redução de patogênicos no lançamento dos efluentes. Revelou-se ser o processo de menor custo e de elevado grau de eficiência em relação a outros processos como a ozonização que é bastante dispendiosa e a radiação ultra violeta que não é aplicável a qualquer situação.

O gás mais perigoso presente é o metano por ser explosivo, já tendo causado a morte de alguns operários de companhias de saneamento.

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