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Brines from salars and salt lakes, as well as spodumene ores, are the primary source of lithium, while geothermal brines represent secondary sources.
Produced water from oil & gas operations is an untapped source of lithium that may be more important in the future.
Chemical precipitation, adsorption with inorganic ion exchange sorbents, solvent extraction and concentration with membrane technologies are the primary means of lithium recovery from brines.
Each lithium extraction and recovery process has unique advantages and challenges that need to be considered when determining the best fit for any project.
New advances in water treatment offer exciting improvements on the economics of using membrane technologies for lithium recovery.
PDF-Dokument [317.6 KB]
Ghana is currently under unimaginable political quagmire. The government seems not to know its direction to the extent that members of the ruling party can do anything under the guise that they are helping the government.
V2-Paper on Ghana's Rural Water Reforms[...]
Microsoft Word-Dokument [206.9 KB]
Success Stories of the Clean Water State Revolving Fund Highlighted
PDF-Dokument [58.8 KB]
Recent research showed that over the past 20 years, concentrations of pharmaceuticals have increased in the world's freshwater sources which can potentially cause damaging ecological effects.
Aquatic risks from human pharmaceuticals[...]
PDF-Dokument [2.5 MB]
With the growing implementation with the AI and virtual environment there is a better scope for the production of highest quality of nutraceuticals. Microalgae, capable of performing photosynthesis, are important for life on earth which provides a well-balanced mixture of nutrients to the organisms higher in the food web. Microalgae are considered as a potential source of protein, carbohydrate, fatty acids, vitamins, amino acids, carotenoids, phycobilliproteins, astaxanthin, lutein and antioxidants which provide health benefits such as controlling blood pressure, strengthening immune system, reduction of coronary heart diseases, serves as anticancer agent, and antioxidant etc. Nutritional value of microalgae varies from species to species depending u
PDF-Dokument [480.8 KB]
Over the last decades, various PCR-based methods have been proposed that can identify sources of
faecal pollution in environmental waters. These microbial source tracking (MST) methods are powerful
tools to manage water quality and support public health risk assessment. However, their application
is limited by the lack of specialized equipment and trained personnel in laboratories performing
microbiological water quality assessment. Here, we describe a novel molecular method that combines
helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) with a strip test for detecting ruminant faecal pollution
sources. Unlike quantitative PCR (qPCR), the developed HDA-strip assay only requires a heating
block to amplify the ruminant-associated
16S rRNA marker (BacR). Following HDA, the
PDF-Dokument [1.4 MB]
Water resources management is increasingly important for sustainable economic and social development. A coherent division of the development stages is of primary importance for selecting and implementing related water resource management strategies. Using evolving supply–demand relationships, this paper proposes a framework that considers water development stages to present a series of dynamic relationships between water demand changes and overall economic development. The framework is applied to China to advance the understanding of how demand evolves at different stages of water resources development under specific socioeconomic circumstances, and of strategic choices in general. The case of China explains how water resources management has gradually improved during distinct socioecono
PDF-Dokument [2.2 MB]
A record of the water industry’s actions successfully managing water resources in the long, hot summer of 2018 has been published.
Summer 2018 was the hottest summer in England since records began back in 1910. Rainfall across the whole of the country over the 3 months of May to July was only 54% of the long-term average, with even less falling in August – only 43% of the normal amount of rain for the month.
The dry summer had several impacts, not least the substantial pressures put on water supplies.
Briefing Paper on managing water supplie[...]
PDF-Dokument [2.4 MB]
The purpose of this report is to compare the performance of the water sector in England and Wales since 1990 with that of key comparator countries, specifically France, Ireland, Italy, Spain and Germany.
GWI International water sector performan[...]
PDF-Dokument [1.2 MB]
PSI RCS PP 010 Loudoun Water 10-30-2018.[...]
PDF-Dokument [541.5 KB]
Global Waters Radio - Rolf Luyendijk and[...]
PDF-Dokument [60.0 KB]
The Apparel & Textiles sector poses and faces significant water risks. WWF, together with its partner H&M, have been helping to pioneer new approaches to cleaner production and water stewardship, highlighted in this publication.
PDF-Dokument [3.6 MB]
PDF-Dokument [3.6 MB]
Wilder Research, a division of Amherst H. Wilder Foundation, is a nationally respected nonprofit research and evaluation group. For more than 100 years, Wilder Research has gathered and interpreted facts and trends to help families and communities thrive, get at the core of community concerns, and uncover issues that are overlooked or poorly understood.
PDF-Dokument [1.1 MB]
Complex infrastructural networks provide critical services to cities but can be vulnerable to external stresses,
including climatic variability. This vulnerability has also challenged past urban settlements, but its role in cases
of historic urban demise has not been precisely document
ed. We transform archeological data from the medieval
Cambodian city of Angkor into a numerical model that allows us to quantify topological damage to critical urban
infrastructure resulting from climatic variability. Our model reveals unstable behavior in which extensive and cas-
cading damage to infrastructure occurs in response to flooding within Angkor
s urban water management system.
The likelihood and extent of the cascading failure abrupt
ly grow with the magnitude of flooding relative to normal
PDF-Dokument [2.1 MB]
Too many people still lack access to safely managed water supplies and sanitation facilities. Water scarcity, flooding and lack of proper wastewater management also hinder social and economic development. Increasing water efficiency and improving water management are critical to balancing the competing and growing water demands from various sectors and users.
In 2015, 29 per cent of the global population lacked safely managed drinking water supplies, and 61 per cent were without safely managed sanitation services. In 2015, 892 million people continued to practise open defecation.
In 2015, only 27 per cent of the population in LDCs had basic handwashing facilities.
Preliminary estimates from household data of 79 mostly high- and high-middle-income countries (excluding much of A
PDF-Dokument [11.4 MB]
This paper uses company experiences from Mongolia, Peru, South Africa, Canada, and the Upper Hunter Valley and Fitzroy regions of Australia to identify key lessons learned.
Access to clean water is at the very core of sustainable development. As a water-dependent sector, mining and metals companies are well placed to support collective solutions to shared water challenges; contributing to improved water security and sanitation for all.
Shared Water, Shared Responsibility, Sha[...]
PDF-Dokument [6.7 MB]
Technological knowledge created through government R&D investment not only contributes to technology and market expansion, but is also a major factor in evaluating a nation’s innovation capacity. As government budgets are limited, establishing an effective investment strategy is important. The purpose of this paper is to suggest R&D investment priorities in terms of the centrality of knowledge diffusion—which technology field is targeted in knowledge diffusion—and rapidity of knowledge diffusion—how quickly technological knowledge diffuses.
The analysis focused on a water resources R&D program led by the Korean government. The ce
Measuring Knowledge Diffusion in Water R[...]
PDF-Dokument [942.8 KB]
PDF-Dokument [418.7 KB]
We review the increasing body of research on urban water security. First, we reflect on the four different focusses in water security literature: welfare, equity, sustainability
and water-related risks.Second,wemake aninventory of the multiple perspectives on urban water security: disciplinary perspectives (e.g. engineering, environmental, public policy, public health), problem-oriented perspectives (e.g. water shortage, flooding, water pollution), goal-oriented perspectives (e.g. better water supply and sanitation, better sewerage and wastewater treatment, safety from flooding, proper
urban drainage), integrated-water versus water-integrated perspectives, and policy analytical versus governance perspectives. Third, we take a systems perspective on urban water security, taking the pressure
PDF-Dokument [1.3 MB]